Monday, December 30, 2019
Transformations in Ovids Metamorphosis Transformations from one shape or form into another are the central theme in Ovids Metamorphoses. The popularity and timelessness of this work stems from the manner of story telling. Ovid takes stories relevant to his culture and time period, and weaves them together into one work with a connecting theme of transformation throughout. The thread of humor that runs through Metamorphoses is consistent with the satire and commentary of the work. The theme is presented in the opening lines of Metamorphoses, where the poet invokes the gods, who are responsible for the changes, to look favorably on his efforts to compose. The changes are of many kinds: from human to animal, animal to human, thing toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Upon encountering Daphne, Apollo falls madly in love with her. Overcome by Cupids arrow, Apollo sets aside reason and becomes engulfed by his hope of attaining his love. Before being transformed, Apollo would most likely have paid little or no attention to Daphne, b ut now, Apollo is overcome by his lust for beauty. Ovid compares Apollos love for Daphne to a flame in a brush. This metaphor used by Ovid is very effective. The change that goes through Apollo is very sudden and fast. The imagery of a flame rapidly spreading through brush conveys the idea of an almost violent change. The god is consumed with a desire for the girl. His chase is fueled by a hope to overcome the ultimate futility of his actions. He sees every part of her as beautiful, her eyes, hair, face and even speculates as to the beauty of her hidden regions. Unsatisfied by the sight of Daphne and wanting more than just a glimpse of her beauty, Apollo follows Daphne as a hound chases a rabbit. The hope for his fruitless love keeps Apollo close on Daphnes trail, and fear motivates Daphne to stay just out of reach. When Ovid tries to convey the intensity of the flight, he says, He gave the fleeing maiden no respite, but followed close on her heels, and his breath touched the locks that lay scattered on her neck,;(p. 43) Finally, burdened by mortal exhaustion, Daphne prays to her father to deliver her from her torment. As the words leave her mouth, Daphne is transformed for the secondShow MoreRelatedKafka s Metamorphosis : Transformation, Adaptation, And Death1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s Metamorphosis Gregor Samsa goes through a great metamorphosis putting great strain on his family. In OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s Metamorphosis Daphne too endures a transformation. While KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s metamorphosis is a metaphor OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s is a myth. Even though these two tales are very different and are styled differently they go through the same steps of transformation. Both Gregor Samsa and Daphne experience the transformation, adaptation, and death. Kafka begins with the transformation of Gregor Samsa intoRead More Tracing Changes in Pythagoras Speech in Ovids Metamorphoses1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChanges in Pythagoras Speech in Ovids Metamorphoses Ã Change in Ovid, as well as in life, seems to be the only constant.Ã Ã Change is the subject of the Metamorphoses and Ovids purpose in recounting myths is established from the very beginning: My intention is to tell of bodies changed to different forms... with a poem that runs from the worlds beginning to our own days (1.1-4).Ã From this foundation, Ovid launches into his stories, using metamorphosis more as a vehicle for telling hisRead MoreApollos Human Gardening in Ovids Metamorphoses Essays1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesApollos Human Gardening in Ovids Metamorphoses In Ovids epic poem Metamorphoses, he uses many transformations of humanoids to explain the existence of many natural entities such as animals, plants, rivers, and so forth. Ovid uses the Roman gods to be the active agents in many of the metamorphoses, although some of them are caused simply by the will of the being. In the Melville translation of Metamorphoses, the stories The Sun in Love (book IV, ln226-284) and Hyacinth (book X, ln170-239)Read MoreThe Metamorphosis By Franz Kafka1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the novel The Metamorphosis, author Franz Kafka transforms Gregor Samsa, an average citizen working as a commercial retailer, into a vermin. This transformation and the effects of such transformation on both his family and himself directly correlate to the messages Ovid portrays in Metamorphoses. While both works convey the ideas that a human s situation in life is always temporary, lust leads to unfavorable circumstances, and that the stubborn must change, in the Metamorphosi s, Kafka portraysRead MoreReflection Of Ovids Metamorphoss1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOvids Metamorphoses is regarded as a masterpiece among the great classical Latin poems. Unlike Virgils Aeneid, which preceded it by twenty-one years, it is elusive and ironic, mythic rather than historical, and, as its name suggests, continually shifting its shape. Rather than chronicling and celebrating the monumentality of Rome and the grandeur of its emperor, Ovid here examines and reflects upon the passions and inner strengths and weaknesses of individuals. The Metamorphoses is a collectionRead MoreThe Metamorphosis And The Chief Agent Of Transformations2073 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesMetamorphoses means transformations and there are many kinds of transformations throughout the poem. In fact, nearly everything in the story is in a process of changing. People are transformed as a result of love or hate and sometimes as revenge. Yet, so often these transformations seem extraneous, insignificant to the main point. This paper will attempt to argue that transformation is the main theme in the metamorphosis and the chief agent of transformations is love. As well as other themesRead MoreRape And The Mortal Rapists1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1) the portrayal of a powerless and sexualised female, 2) the assertion of dominance and control from a passionately desirous male god, and 3) the act of metamorphosis that precedes the rape. The assertion that gods can get away with rape without penalty as opposed to human rapists who often suffer dire consequences is deeply entrenched in OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s Metamorphoses and other rape myths in classical narrative. Apollo is not punished for chasing after maiden nymph Daphne and causing her to transform intoRead MoreThe Metamorphoses By Ovid s Metamorphoses1844 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s Metamorphoses tells the story of Diana and Actaeon, the goddess of the hunt and a man who unwittingly stumbles upon the sacred grotto of Gargaphia while Diana is bathing with her nymphs. The outraged goddess transforms Actaeon into a stag, and ironically, his own hunting dogs kill him. RembrandtÃ¢â¬â¢s painting of Diana, Actaeon, and Callisto is an artistic interpretation of Book III Ã¢â¬â and a bit of Book II- of the Metamorphoses, providing a visual insight of the scene that casts ActaeonÃ¢â¬â¢s unfortunateRead More Jealousy and Desire in Ovids Metamorphoses Essay examples8 09 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJealousy and Desire in Ovids Metamorphoses Ã Ã Ã Passionate lust is a blinding force. When jealousy and desire control actions, the outcome is never what it is envisioned to be. Ovids Metamorphoses provides an clear example of love turned terribly wrong. Throughout the novel, overwhelming desire controls actions and emotions, leaving behind sadness and grief wherever it strikes. With this kind of love, nobody gets what he or she wants in the end. Ã The first strong example ofRead MoreAnalysis Of Ovid s The Apollo Essay1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Response Paper OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s metamorphosis contains legends that depict the very destructive nature of love and the many different forms it possesses. The power of love can be overwhelming in the sense of obsession or consumption of the whole self, resulting in destructive consequences for the victims of that power. The stories written by Ovid will be explored in the light of how the lack of trying to control the powerful nature of love will result in a transformation of the mind, changing sanity and common
Sunday, December 22, 2019
1) Cost Ã¢â¬â The initial cost of mHealth equipment has acted a barrier in adoption. From the mHealth solutionÃ¢â¬â¢s development perspective Ã¢â¬â the development and maintenance costs are also hindering the adoption. 2) Interoperability Ã¢â¬â There has been a deficiency of standards which mandate interoperability across the various mHealth solutions. This is one of the major reasons for limiting the scalability of mHealth solutions. The consumers often transmit data they collect using their mobile device to their health records or health care provider, which generally aids the provider in diagnosis. The health care provider can also possibly incorporate this data in the patient/consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s EHR (Electronic Health Record). Such prospects could raise various multi layered issues relating interoperability (e.g. - technical, semantic, legal, organizational). 3) Liability Ã¢â¬â Discerning liability emerging from the use of mHealth solution has been a complex issue of concern due to the involvement of various bodies: mHealth solution manufacturer, health care provider, any authority or body which is involved in providing the diagnosis or even the internet service provider. The impairment to the consumer health could possibly come from numerous sources like Ã¢â¬â an erroneous diagnosis by a health care provider (based on data which was not accurate), a mistake made by an IT professional, a faulty device, the inability or wrong usage of device by a consumer. The possibilities are endless. mHealthShow MoreRelatedImpact Of Technology On Health Care780 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesredefine health care processes both within health care organizations and the way people interact with them. Technology exploitation in mHealth (mobile health), Telehealth and speech-to-text software is rapidly increasing within the health care system to provide a convenient, fast and reliable means of connecting health care professions, patients and health information. mHealth provides rapid connectivity and remote communication means necessary in care processes by exploiting consumers demand and acceptanceRead MoreThe Arkansas Aging Initiative Encourages Hospitals For Practice Holistic And Team Approach Care1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages(Yamada et al, 2015). Rising cost of healthcare continues to widen the disparity gap. Many elderly cannot afford healthcare, which is why Medicare and state allocated funds are crucial resources to aide in the cause of making good quality healthcare accessible for the elderly population. Alternative EBP solutions/recommendation: The hospital should consider the use of more technological options when making health services more accessible. Mobile Health (mHealth) is a good example of using technologyRead MoreNew And Innovative Technology - Mhealth Or Mobile Health1961 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages mHealth Authors: Yingjie Ma (628908), Wenyue Hu (628950) and Abhijeet Singh Madra (648859). Abstract: The report gives an insight on the new and innovative technology Ã¢â¬â mHealth or mobile health. Our report first gives a brief introduction of two pages on the topic. The next section is divided into three parts Ã¢â¬â 1. Potential of mHealth, 2. Case study and examples and 3. Issues, barriers and our study of a mHealth application. In the end, we give a conclusion and future directions. The referencesRead MoreThe Growth Of Preferred Partner Networks976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreporting requirements, data collection. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the PPN will result from an insurerÃ¢â¬â¢s referral. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In most instances, the treatment provided by a PPN is pre-approved by the insurer, or the insurer may have set a cap on the cost or number of weeks of treatment, subject to the minimum requirements set out in the Statutory Accident Benefits Schedule (automobile insurance specific policy). The Financial Services Commission of Ontario also states that OntarioÃ¢â¬â¢s Insurance Act doesRead MoreHow Can E Health Improve The Healthcare Delivery System? Essay1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreceiving appropriate care or hospitalizations that could have been prevented (AHRQ, 2008). Examples of these barriers are fragmented delivery system and lack of continuity of care, shortage of health professionals, limited access to health services, and cost concerns (Baker et al, 2016; Salka, 2015; Kahn, 2011). Advancements in e-Health highlight significant potential in addressing these barriers. There several modalities of e-health that can aid in improving the health status of US residents: Ã¢â¬ ¢ LiveRead MoreE-Health and M-Health in Kazakhstan1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages............................4 Methodology.................................................................................................4 eHealth, mhealth and telemedicine in general.................................5 Telemedicine in Kazakhstan...................................................................7 eHealth and mHealth in Kazakhstan....................................................9 Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦...........................................................................Read MoreTechnology and Health Care Paper1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesface-to-face interaction between the physician and patient. The physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ diagnosis can be given immediately during the e-visit. A third party is required when using the real-time form of telemedicine. The third party is responsible for operating the equipment at the originating site and recording any special instructions or prescriptions given by the physician. Many of the physicians utilizing telemedicine will use a combination of store and forward and real-time technology to optimize the care theyRead MoreMain Ideas Discussing Health Care1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCare will be discussed to show the comparison between Health Care. This paper will touch on the following subjects of the Food Industry; how much we spend, what are the impacts of your health when you eat healthy foods, fast food costs verses natural organic food costs, and how medicine can simply be the food that you eat. General Health Care Information The definition of health care is a field concerned with the maintenance or restoration of the health of the body and the mind, and any proceduresRead MoreMobile Technology in Healthcare Essay1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesidentified the tremendous cost benefit opportunity from remote healthcare management. Ã¢â¬Å"At the same time, hospitals are seeking to reduce readmission rates as a way to lower healthcare costs. Research that examined the re-hospitalization rates of Medicare beneficiaries indicates that nearly 20% of Medicare patients are re-hospitalized within 30 days after discharge, at an annual cost of $17 billion. Hospital readmissions carry huge costs for hospitals and add greatly to the cost of healthcare. RemoteRead MoreThe Internet Of Things For Healthcare1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThings is the key contributor to Smart Healthcare system nowadays. It changes the total system of monitoring from manual mode to automated with even remote management. It transforms the healthcare sectors by managing the schedule, making competitive cost scenario, increasing the efficiency, providing reliability in services and eventually giving concentrated focus to patient care. Medical devices can provide data from the patient monitoring system, and IoT platform can make those data more precise
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Universe and how does it fit in with Web Intelligence Reporting? . The universe represents the semantic layer over the database; it contains one or more connections to data sources, you can link able graphically and set up business friendly named objects that point to the columns of tables. These objects can be used by a report writer to query the databases and write reports using Business Friendly objects; this creates SQL In the background without the user requiring SQL knowledge. We will write a custom essay sample on Bo Universe Design Specification or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. What are the components of a universe in SAP BOO version 4? C. Connections, Data Foundation, Data Foundation Views, Business Layer and Business Layer views 4. What Is a data provider? D. A data provider represents the refreshable results from a query. From the data provider, a number of blocks and report tabs can be created within a document. . What standard presentation styles are available? E. Table, Crossbar, Form and any number of Charts. Can you schedule Web Intelligence reports? If so how? F. Yes you can use either Infinite In version 3 or the Bal Platform In version 4. 7. What Is wrong with this formula syntax? =Max(Sales Revenue) Forearm Year) g. The for each syntax for an input context Is typically Inside the second parenthesis, weÃ¢â¬â¢re also a missing a bracket. I would expect the bracketing to be around year. For example Max(;Sales Revenue; Forearm (;Year;)) How to cite Bo Universe Design Specification, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Antarctica is one of the largest and most fragile environments on earth. It is rare and unique, and few people get the opportunity to visit such an extraordinary place. AntarcticaÃ¢â¬â¢s unique environment and climate sets it apart from other tourist destinations. However, the hostile wilderness creates many challenges for ecotourism. There is a concern regarding the high concentration of tourists and their environmental impact at the few landing sites available. The real debate is whether tourism can benefit, or threaten the conservation of Antarctica. Ecotourism, in its early historical origins has been closely linked to nature Ã¢â¬â oriented tourism. For example, Laarman and Durst, in reference to ecotourism, defined it as a nature tourism where a traveler is interested and drawn to a destination because of its features and natural history. The visit combines education, recreation, and often adventureÃ¢â¬â¢ (Laarman and Durst 1987:5). Defining ecotourism is not easily done, difficulties defining it are mainly due to the multidimensional nature of the definitions, and the fact that each dimension involved represents a continuum of possibilities (Blamey 1997). The Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as Ã¢â¬Ëresponsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ (Western 1993:8). Ceballos-Lascurain (1987: 14) defines ecotourism as Ã¢â¬Ëtraveling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural manifestations (both past and present) found in these areasÃ¢â¬â¢. The tourism industry of Antarctica is often overlooked as a factor of environmental degradation. It is important that more attention is drawn to assessing the current state of this large continent. Beck (1994) states that, tourists, scientists, and other visitors to Antarctica have tremendous environmental impacts. Tourist shipping can pose an environmental risk, and there is good reason for concern. There have been several marine accidents in recent years. There was the case of an Argentinean supply vessel Bahia Paraiso, which ran a ground on January 28, 1989, spilling 600 metric tones of fuel into AntarcticaÃ¢â¬â¢s pristine waters (Culver 1991). Other environmental impacts include engine emissions that contribute to air pollution. The noise generated from outboard motors on inflatable zodiacs, turbulence created from tourist ships and the Ã¢â¬Å"grey waterÃ¢â¬ sewage they emit also creates harmful effects. More responsibility is being demanded out of eco tourists visiting Antarctica. For example Salen LindbladÃ¢â¬â¢s 164-passenger ship the Frontier Spirit has been reinforced, and also contains a sewage treatment plant, refrigerated waste storage area, and a special storage area for non-biodegradable waste (Cebellos-Lascurain 1996). Another main concern is in the peninsula region of Antarctica where there are several highly concentrated, high profile sites. The concentration of tourism activities leads to the potential for over visitation in these areas. A present study of Magellanic penguins demonstrates that human impact puts a great amount of stress on the species. Simple human presence can be physiologically stressful for breeding at nest sites (Fowler 1999). The Antarctic environment is very fragile and not used to human activities. However the study also found that birds exposed to high levels of tourists are not effected over time and concludes that as a result tourism should be concentrated to certain areas while others are kept off limits to human presence. People have been going to Antarctica for over 100 years. Prior to 1950, nearly all trips to Antarctica were either exploratory or scientific expeditions (Cessford 1997). As a result of human activity in the area there has been a connection with industrial, national and scientific programs. Human activity has also caused the development of alien microbes, fungi, plants, and animals. These Ã¢â¬Å"alienÃ¢â¬ species that are mostly European in origin exist on most of the sub Ã¢â¬â Antarctic islands and some even occur on the continent itself. These species in turn can have both a direct and indirect impact on the Antarctic ecosystem (Fenot 2004). It has only been recently that biologists have conducted any research into diseases of Antarctic wildlife to note the effects of human activity. These studies look at marine mammals and penguins for bacteria flora and pathogens (disease causing organisms). Blood tests for antibodies of a variety of species have also been taken to check for viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic disease. A study conducted in the summer season of 2000/2001, Dr. Todhunter and Dr. Terris took swab collections of specimens from passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ boots aboard the Kapitan Khlebnikov, which led to tentative findings of a wide range of potential pathogens. In another study 233 fecal samples from 8 bird species were taken from 6 different penguin colonies, which are regularly visited by tourists. The samples were investigated for pathogens of potential human origin. No human related bacteria were found, which suggests that the tourism industry in the Antarctic region has achieved its goal of not introducing any pathogens so far. While the tourist season only ranges from October to April, currently tourism in Antarctica involves over 30 agencies, and 40,000 tourists per annum (Lambert 2005). Antarctica is the ultimate destination for anyone interested in natural history, but it also challenges the same people that visit to think about our responsibilities to all life on earthÃ¢â¬ (Lambert 2005). Tourists to Antarctica are most likely to fall in to the category of eco tourist, as there are no restaurants, theaters or art galleries, and the experience is about learning about and viewing one of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s last untouched continent s. Boo (1990) states that for conservation management to succeed, tourism must be a tool to educate thus creating real benefits for a geological location. Although tourism and human contact on Antarctica is showing some negative impacts, it has also encouraged conservation efforts in the region. Another step towards the recognition of potential environmental impact is the creation of the IATTO (International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators). In 1991 seven tour operators active in Antarctica formed IATTO. It was created to act as a single organization. The goal of IATTO is to promote and practice safe environmentally responsible private-sector travel to the Antarctic. Currently there are 80 member organizations representing 14 countries. IATTO 2008) This environmental protocol designates Antarctica as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science and seeks to ensure human activities, such as tourism, have no adverse effects on the Antarctic environment, or on its scientific and aesthetic values. With a recent increase in the number of members in the IAATO it shows that companies are becoming more aware of the environmentally se nsitive concerns related to Antarctica and the importance of such an organization. The increase in membership does not necessarily mean that there has been a drastic increase in the number of tourists visiting Antarctica. All current Antarctica tour operators file yearly environmental impact assessments to their national authorities. There are few places on earth that have never been to war, where the environment is fully protected and scientific research has priority over anything else. (IAATO 2008) The Antarctic treaty can be accredited with the successful protection of Antarctica. Formed on June 23, 1961 the treaty covers the area south of 60 degrees latitude and consists of 46 countries. Its objectives are simple and unique, demilitarize Antarctica and make it a zone free of nuclear tests, and disposal of radioactive waste. As well as be used for peaceful purposes only (IAATO 2008). To promote international cooperation in the Antarctic and set aside disputes over territorial sovereignty. The treaty parties meet each year and have adopted over 300 recommendations and negotiated separate international agreements, of which 3 are still in use. These include: 1. The convention for the conservation of Antarctic seals which was established in 1972. 2. The convention for conservation of Antarctica marine living resources established in 1980. 3. The protocol on Environmental protection to the Atlantic Treaty established in 1991. These agreements and the original treaty provide the rules to govern all activities in relation to Antarctica. Collectively known as the Antarctica Treaty System (ATS). In conclusion it is apparent that Antarctica is a very fragile environment, and any kind of human involvement can pose great risks if the correct precautions are not taken. It is clear to me that eco tourism can benefit the great continent of Antarctica, those visiting become ambassadors as they learn about the importance of preservation. Boo (1990) explains that tourists become emotionally attached to an area and will contribute funds to preserve it. It is important for organizations like the IAATO to continue their promotion of safe and environmentally responsible travel to the Antarctic. Continued research is necessary to make sure that tourists as well as scientists leave as little of a human footprint as possible. Antarctica is a beautiful place on earth, and I believe that when people are educated about their impact on such a vulnerable area and regulations are put in place to protect the area that everyone should be able to experience the Antarctic continent in all of its magnificence.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Organized Hypocrisy Essay Every nation wants to contain its own powers and privileges. Of course it is needed. Any nation satisfying the definition of state can expect the powers and privileges of its own. It does not like others involvement in its matter by other nations. The ability of a nation to constrain other involvement in its internal affairs is called sovereignty. Ã ¹Ã¢â¬Å"Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e.g. legislative, judicial, and/or executive) authority over a geographic region, group of people, or oneself. A sovereign is the supreme lawmaking authority, subject to no otherÃ¢â¬ . The concept of sovereignty got worldwide recognition with the idea of peace, establishment of League of Nations and U.N.O etc. The U.N.O in its charter clearly says about non-interference of other states in the internal affairs of any county. But in reality it is not going to work as we expected. We are seeing internal affairs means only as political affairs, policy affairs. But th ese things are indirectly influenced by other 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Wikipedia factors like pro-westernization, economy, its influence on international arena, etc.Ã Due influence of more number of factors which are showing impact on the sovereignty of a country, the concept of sovereignty has lost its relevance in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern world.Ã It is nothing like organized hypocrisy rather than true sovereignty. Ã ¹Ã¢â¬Å"The abolition of inter-state war was the declared goal of the Charter of the UN. Today, the aim seems to include the abolition of internal war as well which implies a redefinition both of internal sovereignty and the non-intervention principle.Ã¢â¬ We will write a custom essay sample on Organized Hypocrisy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Organized Hypocrisy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Organized Hypocrisy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The term sovereignty has been used in four ways Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã International legal sovereignty Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Westphalia sovereignty Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Domestic sovereignty Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Interdependence sovereignty 1. Eberwein, Wolf-dieter;Ã Badie, Bertrand ; Ingenta Connect 1. Ã ¹Ã¢â¬Å"International Legal Sovereignty: Practices associated with mutual recognition, usually between territorial entities that have formal juridical independence, it contains authority and legitimacy but not control. 2. Westphalian Sovereignty refers to p.org based on the exclusion of external actors from authority structures with in a given territory. 3. Domestic Sovereignty: Formal org of political authority with in the state and the ability of public authorities to exercise effective controls with in borders of their own policy. It is sharing both authority and control. 4. Interdependence Sovereignty, Ability of public authorities to regulate the flow of information, ideas, goods, people, pollutants or capital across the borders of their state, concerned control only, no authority.Ã¢â¬ Sovereignty became part and parcel of every written constitution and also included in other forms in unwritten 1. Krasner, Organized Hypocrisy constitutions as well. Each and every country talks about its sovereign functions and its sovereignty. For small countries is trying to make propaganda to safe guard its self-interest. This is mainly propagated by the top-level officials to low level officials. However the propaganda of top level is only accountable. These leaders use this in an organized way. They are using it for building personal imageÃ and for the country benefits as well. They make use of the word again and again in a planned way, this helps the country to make progress and continue its respect in international stage. Some times they speak crossing their limitations and also accusing other rival nations which later have to be resolved diplomatically. However human factor has its own influence and it is the main real factor to make things in organized way by several means like propaganda, diplomacy etc. Sovereignty is important and also must need thing now in this period of time is which we think, however in reality it is not so, the concept of sovereignty is loosing its worth. It looks just like an organized hypocrisy now with many developments going around in a quick rate. Hypocrisy means the practice of claiming to have higher standard of beliefs than in the case.Ã This hypocrisy is poised in a planned and a systematic way to get acceptance of all the sections of people. Every country have its own strategy to maintain that hypocrisy knowingly for its own benefits starting from very big country to small countries depending upon its own requirements. Concept of sovereignty is loosing its grip due to number of factors already stated. These include Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Political affairs Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Pro-westernization Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Diplomatic relations. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã International system Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Globalization. Some students of international politics take sovereignty as an analytic assumption, other as a description of the practice of actors, and still others as a generative grammar. There is actor oriented perspective Krasner in his books organized hypocrisy focused on actor Ã¢â¬â oriented perspective. But he says the actors are not the nations like in neo-liberalism, neo-realism etc., International order is must needed thing now or else within no time the world will collapse. This order helps to bind the international society together. Ã¢â¬Å"There are four care values in the present international system. 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The maintenance of minimum public order, meaning the avoidance of behavior that would risk general war. 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Self-determination, although this term lacks any specific meaning beyond decolonization. 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Minimum human rights, which consists of the nation that a state violates international norms if it denies on Ã¢â¬Å"identifiableÃ ¹ group equal access to the political, economic and social perquisite of that society.Ã¢â¬ 4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Modernization, the assertion that living standards should be raised through at the world.Ã¢â¬ Several international attempts were also dare to maintain balance with in a country between rulers and the minority groups. Minority groups means any section of society whether based on religion, 1. Krasner, Organized Hypocrisy language etc., who are in lesser number are treated as minorities. These peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s rights will be sometimes discarded, and then the rulers say it is their internal affairs. It has sovereign right to deal it by itself. There are severalÃ instances in past and present as well, where such aÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã situation has raised, for example in the Ottoman Empire, Fiji, where settlers are minority groups here, Sunni-Shia conflicts in many Arab countries, struggle between tribal groups in African countries. The claim of the states is that it is their internal affair and no one has right to interfere. Depending upon the issue the international community is interfering and asking the nations to deal the issue in a justified manner. Though there are several methods just like diplomacy, through international institutions , negotiations etc and if they are not going to work out then through economic sanctions , shutting down the diplomatic relations etc.,. Another important factor which influences Sovereignty is very new concept that is Globalization.Ã We are now staying in a global village where we cannot deny relations with others. If any country does that it will be the looser in the end of the day. Nations will suffer and the citizens of that country will be the real victims of the leaders polices. They say that they have every right to have their own agenda.Ã These agenda should be accepted by internationally community. Now with the revolution in telecommunications each and every aspect of development of all countries are known to all. If any country go according it own whi ms and fancies the international community is curtailing it with a strategy of collective economic sanctions enforced by international organizations. There are several instances where economic sanctions were imposed. Some of the examples are sanctions on Iraq after Gulf War, sanctions on India and Pakistan after Nuclear Tests, on South Africa for showing racial discrimination, etc. like this there are several examples. Like this there is no freedom to do according to its interests. But unfortunately this is not going to apply for developed countries. They are influencing the international organizations to give financial assistance to the smaller countries and to keep sanctions on them. This is possible due to their higher stake in those. This is making fun of the concept of Sovereignty. This will lose confidence on them and small countries will not trust them. Some countries are ending their relations with IMF and WB. Ã ¹Ã¢â¬Å"Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez announced that his country had withdrawn from the IMF and WB.Ã¢â¬ And some other Latin American countries like Nicaraguan, Argentina etc are in that way. After giving due importance to developed countries also the international institutions though they are claiming that they are safeguarding the interests of nations and their sovereignty. This is nothing other than the organized Hypocrisy by international community controlled by developed nations. By above examples we may come to a conclusion that international community and globalization is dominating the states sovereignty but is not totally correct as we see. Even though the other factors are looking in front but the real player is the human factor which is influencing all the things. Ã ²Ã¢â¬Å"What Krasner regards as Ã¢â¬Ëorganized hypocrisyÃ¢â¬â¢ may also be perceived, at least with some compassion for our human infirmities, as the 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Venezuela to Quit IMF, WB. Deccan Chronicle 2. Krasner, EmperorÃ¢â¬â¢s New Clothes. inherent, perforce ineluctable, contradictions of political existence. Hence, stretching this claim to its ultimate limits, it would follow that in the world of history and politics, the human actor, with all his/her constraints and contingencies, has precedence over institutions and structures, that personal decisions override international norms. For the politics of meaning, even for the modern man, lies beyond the politics of state-sovereignty.Ã¢â¬ How many numbers of the factors may be or what ever the levels of their impact may be these factors undermined the concept of sovereignty which had lot of importance in the earlier days. But now it looks just like an organized hypocrisy.Ã Unless there are streamlined basic principles established by international conventions and accepted by international community and each and every nation in the world, we may forget the concept of sovereignty forever which is not good for the nations and world at large in long run.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Securitisation Essay Example Securitisation Essay Securitisation Essay Securitisation is a process of pooling in and transferring a cash-producing asset or receivable to a specially created investment vehicle. The bank which sells the assets is known as the originator and the purchaser of the cash-producing asset is known as the SPV (special purpose vehicle) or the transferee. As a result of the purchase, the SPV issues bonds to the originator based on the financial assets. These bonds are also known as asset-backed security (ABS) in capital markets. This helps the originator to realize the value of the cash-producing asset immediately, by investing the issued bonds. It can also help the originator to remove debts from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet. Securitisation would aid an originator in obtaining cheaper finances in distress situations, if the credit quality of the securitised assets is better than that of the originator. It would also free the originator from financial risks arising as a result of loan payment defaults by reducing reduces cred it risks.Even mortgage debts and consumer loans are considered to be cash-producing assets which are otherwise known as receivables. A bank will be exposed to financial risks resulting from loan defaults. When these financial risks are reported to the regulatory bodies, the ability of the bank to lend money to other clients will get restricted. When a bank adopts securitisation of its loans, it essentially sells these cash-producing assets, which enables it to uses the money effectively to make further investments. The financial gain acquired by investing the cash-producing assets is used to pay the interest pertaining to the bonds.The sale of cash-producing assets is usually legalised by a process called novation. This involves creating a new agreement between the new lender and borrower, thereby replacing the existing agreement between the original lender and borrower. Although the originator sells the assets to the transferee, the originator will receive a fee for managing the as sets, since it acts as an agent between the mortgager and the transferee, without bearing any financial risk.Any bank planning for the securitisation of a portfolio of loans has to plan for handling various legal issues that are bound to arise, especially when the transaction is a true sale. Ã When the transfer of the financial asset is a true sale, all the obligations and rights pertaining to the cash-producing asset gets transferred to the purchaser of the asset. The originator will have to prove that it is not at risk of payment defaults or insolvency. Similarly, the SPV also should not be at risk of defaulting on its own obligations or becoming insolvent. It should also possess credit enhancement and adequate liquidity facilities to satisfy payment obligations within the necessary timeframe. These conditions are reflected by the credit ratings given by the respective agency. Higher credit ratings would encourage more investors to invest in the SPV.During the time of a true sale, the originator must own the receivables and the SPV should obtain a good title which proves that the receivables are factual, valid, enforceable and compliant with licencing and regulatory statutes. This is commonly known as re-characterisation risk since the originator continues to retain a few residual risks. However, the transaction should not be a secured financing wherein the originator pledges the receivables as a security to borrow sale proceeds from the SPV. Secured financing will not be treated as a true sale due to the lack of registration, resulting in accounting problems and other negative pledge infringements.In a true sale, the sale documentation includes provisions for further sale, originatorÃ¢â¬â¢s insolvency, breach of warranties and an assignment of the receivables. The securitised assets would not become void when the originator faces insolvency or in the event of the receivables being sold undervalue. During insolvency proceedings, the securitised assets can not be recovered by the originatorÃ¢â¬â¢s receiver. The warranties would prevent third parties from exacting a competing ownership of the assets. The assignment can be either equitable or legal, according to English law. Legal assignments usually require a notice to bring them into effect.Ã However, equitable assignments are commonly used since they can be made effective, even without notice to the debtor. However, issues pertaining to conflict of laws may arise in certain legal territories where equitable assignments are not recognised by law. This could possibly cause a negative impact on the transfer of future as well as existing assets.Over-collateralisation is a phenomenon wherein the value of receivables transferred by the originator to the SPV is greater than the funding provided by the investor. This is done in order to provide a buffer to the SPV at times of debtor defaults. This would also effectively increase the assets of the SPV and build up extra cas h flow. However, this extra value of the assets will remain as an outstanding due and accordingly adjusted during the termination of the securitization.When there are prohibitions on the assignment in the underlying debt contract, it causes a breach of contract and therefore becomes invalid according to the non-assignment clause. According to Don King Productions v. Warren, the benefit of the contracts will hold good on the basis of trust for the partnership, even when one partner ends the contracts before winding up the contract.According to Re George Inglefield Ltd, goods and hire-purchase agreements would be treated as mortgages or charges of book debts, in the event of lack of registration.Ã Hence, these assignments claimed by a liquidator would be considered void. However, the liquidator claimed that the agreement was made for an out-and-out sale which did not require registration, thereby reversing the prior decision. The judicial decisions in the recent past have indicated that asset sales are not necessarily re-characterised as secured loans according to English law, as long as the rights and obligations associated with sale and purchase of these cash-producing assets are consistent.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Multinational Corp-Evol & Cur Issue - Essay Example After learning the course, I got a snapshot of important economies in the global industry. The important economies include the United States, Japan, the Euro Area, and Emerging Markets (Jonge, 32).Ã From the course, I learned that the current activity indicator is 1.8% down from 2.75%. In addition, the recent economic weakness of the United States owes to the adverse weather. In Japan, the weak GDP in the fourth quarter was revised down to 2.2% from 2.4% and 0.5% from 0.7%. The Euro Area continued its weakness in bank credit and broad money growth. Consequently, Emerging Markets is focused on tightening financial conditions. After watching the Ã¢â¬Å"Terms and ConditionsÃ¢â¬ movie, I realized that no one bothers reading terms and conditions that are connected to the websites they visit. After watching the movie of what lies between the agreements, one might easily hurl your computer. Therefore, the movie investigates what the corporation and governments do with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personal information. Therefore, from the course, I learned the dangers that hide within the contracts that people agree and never bother to read, and what people give up when they click Ã¢â¬Å"I acceptÃ¢â¬ . Consequently, from the course, I learned that there are various messages and smaller points that show us the way organizations use their employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s entitlement as their advantage to lure them into doing what the employers want. It should be remembered that future stock options, bonus promises, health care plans, and pension provisions are paper assets and the promises behind them can easily be broken and the papers can be regarded as worthless and the expense of employers (Jonge,28). It is purely blackmailing. Subsequently, from the course, I learned the 48 laws of power; Specifically, I learned law 22 to law 28. According to the laws, I learned that companies have to transform the weakness into power by using the surrender tactic. The motive behind surrendering is sav ing the hide in the future when one reasserts oneself. When one is temporarily weakened, the tactic is the best for raising the company up again. From the course, I learned how to concentrate on the forces of a company.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Financial Markets - Assignment Example oney markets which entail bond markets and stock markets, money markets, commodity markets, insurance markets among others (Bhole & Mahakud 2009, p.2). The financial market is crucialÃ for the success of the businesses encompassed in a given economy. Every business utilizes specific financial instruments in their operations. The document below analyzes 1 PM PLC, a British company on the basis of its financial aspects. Numerous financial markets have cropped up in the modern world of business. The financial instruments that are in existence in the common modern markets can be broadly classified into equity and debt based financial instruments. The debt-based financial instruments represent loans made by a given investor to the assetÃ¢â¬â¢s owner. In others words, it entails the businesses borrowing money from financial institutions. It has some benefits to the investors as well as disadvantages. The most significant benefit of the debt based financial instruments is that unlike the equity-based financial instruments, the entrepreneur retains the sole control of the enterprise (Howells & Bain 2007, p.5). This implies that the investors will be entitled to share profits and also have the say run the business towards their direction of choice. When the entrepreneur is need of the cash, acquiring the cash do not seem a problem. However, it can sometimes lead to conflict somewhere along the way since it has to be repaid as per the laid down terms and conditions. Foreign exchange is another type of financial instrument being utilized in the modern business. However, this has limitation to the businesses which transact businesses internationally. The most prominent financial instrument in the world today is the equity market or the stock market. Most of the companies and enterprises are making use of this market to serve their financial needs. It can be defined as an aggregation of buyers as well as sellers of stocks also termed as shares (Bhole & Mahakud 2009, p.3). They
Monday, November 18, 2019
Marketing - Assignment Example ISO works process framework would be used to show how SIX Sigma might be laid out and what information will be needed to implement this tool. There are many tools that make up this collective and they need to be fully researched in the first instance for early stages and consultants/experts in the implementation of these tools are required to avoid pitfalls caused by redundant data. One problem that is required to be addressed with these tools is that of measuring potential work flows and bottle necks in the production process. "Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizingÃ variabilityÃ in manufacturingÃ andÃ business processes." (one six sigma web) The 'Qualicoat' status requires us to do much of the processes of Six Sigma would and we run a zero defects policy with any defects being reworked. New innovation such as Quality control measures before the Powder coating process will mean that many of the issues will be taken care of on the production line. Where Six Sigma and learn thinking tools will come into their own will be more visible in our data processing and customer liaising as well as in our order processing and sales activities. Sales personnel will be able to predict work flows with new centralised communications and above mentioned tools will assist in that role facilitating negotiations at first contact with customer queries. Six Sigma and Total Quality Management (TQM) are tools that are going to be used to push the changes forward and improve on employee participation towards a culture of due diligence. Various tools are now being introduced to engage the workforce in dialogue to identify problem areas, provide training and walk-through them in meeting new goals while actually improving their working environment. Brief look would be given to the questionnaires and language that are going to be used to encourage change. One problem is the resistance to c hange that has been experienced in the past because of people being stuck in the old ways of carrying out processes thus introduction of Six Sigma terminology will create confusion and animosity. These terminologies would only be used within management to avoid unnecessary chaos. It is to be assured that there is the balance of communication therefore new responsibilities are properly defined along with the changes in processes. In order to enhance data collection and processing new management positions would be introduced. There are several objectives of TQM that include process improvement, observing behaviour changes over a time period, defect prevention, developing operational definitions, priority of effort, developing improvement check forms and check lists, developing relationships of cause-effect, measuring capacity of the system, assisting teams in making better decisions and separating trivial from significant needs. TQM on the whole revolves around a few main things that include systems for facilitating improvement, techniques and tools for improvement, Senior Management and all employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ commitment, team work, customers - Supplier relationships, effective vision, mission, strategy and goals, communication and trust. A systematic approach towards quality management involves components like modification of the processes and the inputs, examining of the processes performance, planning of the inputs
Friday, November 15, 2019
Domestic Architecture In Northern Nigeria Cultural Studies Essay Vernacular architecture can only be described as architecture without architects. It is merely in response to a particular individual or community needs, in the sense that buildings designed and built by individuals who according to local climate and culture of a particular community. Study of vernacular architecture explores the characteristics of the local buildings in the district or area, and many factors are social and cultural development. Can the concept of African vernacular style of architecture through both historical trends and perspectives of the environment. While the Yoruba in southwestern Nigeria live in corrugated zinc roof of a mud wall and the unit is surrounded by thick mud walls, and high for reasons of protection against invasion of foreign enemies, normad shepherd from northern Nigeria, Mali, living in temporary grass round the house time. But in Nigeria, expressed in the form of vernacular architecture, cultural influences originating from Brazil and North Africa and Europe. This forms a basis for social organization and traditional culture in the Nigerian society and the interaction between him and other influences can crystallize in the local architecture Nigeria (Adeyemi 1975 to 1976). 2.0 Issue / problem statement: Theft of modern technology in our society construction and design skills of environmentally sensitive homes. Modern architecture became more and more environmentally friendly not only to the people, but also the environment, including use of excessive energy in cooling. That is why we must return to the vernacular architecture to see how the principles can save and use the vernacular in the field of sustainable architecture. There are also around after years of materials that are environmentally friendly and in bad faith for building materials and sustainable construction methods. Search Questions 3.0: Here are some questions I would like to discuss and debate about this in the vernacular architecture in northern Nigeria. How and vernacular architecture to be in Nigeria? What is the vernacular architecture, sustainable architecture? How the vernacular architecture of interaction with the environment? How does the modern style of vernacular architecture? Does the vernacular architecture of energy efficiency? 4.0 Goals / Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find out what determines the vernacular architecture and the study of how vernacular architecture has been developed over the years, and how modern architecture has adopted elements of vernacular architecture. This study will also explore and evaluate the elements of architecture and design principles that can be applied from vernacular architecture to achieve a more affordable and better provide good sustainable buildings. Objective 5.0: To explore the architectural design elements of vernacular architecture. To study the relationship between culture and vernacular architecture. To see if the vernacular architecture sustainable. 6.0 Scope: Will be based on this study on vernacular architecture in northern Nigeria, this paper will discuss the existence of vernacular architecture in Nigeria and the advantages and disadvantages. This study also brings light on the sustainability of vernacular architecture, and types of materials used in vernacular architecture, and how they interact with the culture and environment for those northern Nigeria. It will also discuss research on how the vernacular architecture influenced modern architectural style, and if the two can be combined to provide sustainable buildings is cheaper and better. 7.0 Methodology: It can describe the way in which research in terms of research philosophy that they take part, and the search strategy used and therefore the research tools used (and may be included) in order to achieve that goal the goal search (s) and trying to find a solution to this problem the research questions. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the philosophy of research in relation to other philosophies, put the search strategy, including research methodology was adopted, and displays the search tool has been developed and used in order to achieve the goal. Research will be conducted on the basis of qualitative research methods. Will combine the depth of vernacular architecture and the production of research-based information in certain cases. This approach is based on ethnographic data collection, which will work to find a particular culture environment, and how it reflects their culture in their buildings. And methods of gathering information to become a reflective journal, the study of literature, articles and analysis of documents and materials. 8.0 Literature review In practice, many scientists, when they talk about slang, meaning that age, in rural areas, and local levels. But this definition, when it set an important part of the world average, built, and also a lot of leaves outside. No vernacular architecture now? Are all the history? Are there any vernacular architecture in the city? What about the stores and warehouses, churches, warehouses, stables, workshops, and commercial areas and suburban areas, and other environments, a public place? Are not elements of natural language? Dell Upton and John Michael Flash, Common Places: Read the result in American domestic architecture (1986) Vernacular architecture is the most common term used to denote, and the tribes of farmers, indigenous, and traditional architecture. . . It can distinguish between the formal architecture, the design engineer, engineering, architectural vernacular, and between this and what can be called the Peoples Architecture. Paul Oliver, Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture in the world (1997) (1997), when we isolate from the world, many ignore the vernacular architecture and name it, we have prepared for analysis. In the long marks the transition from unknown to known. Henry Glassie, Vernacular Architecture (2000) From the Latin vernaculus means mother. Vernacular architecture is when all the exhibits the standards applicable to the original context, meaning that it can be accepted and recognized in any given society through the application of some special techniques, materials, and methods and social systems. Slang a term that referred to as a way of expression group or category (Dictionary, 2002). This is a group / class can be kind of like people, buildings and very different patterns of expression I mean, how it seems to us, and this expression pattern is different for each group or category. The language used and the mode of expression a group of people and slang for the first time to define the language in England in 1839. Refers to the colloquial dialect of the region or country and not the intellectual language and literature, or foreign. He worked in the native language and then intermittently, and receive a wider application in the 1950s (Oliver, 1997). Then came the idea in the history of architecture and mode of expression for a particular class of architecture. Architecture researchers are trying to crystallize the idea of Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¹Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¹vernacular slang in different ways. Some have tried to give a specific definition in order to distinguish between the vernacular architecture of other types of architecture. There are also some definitions, which primarily features the characteristics of vernacular architecture. We can mention the most important is the definition and description of the basic characteristics or for the purpose of vernacular architecture. With the help of this information in a combination of the basic characteristics can be written in colloquial definition of architecture as vernacular architecture refers to the built form has been built from local materials using the technology available in the technical and designed to meet the needs of ordinary people in their time and place Vernacular architecture concepts developed and used for centuries by various civilizations throughout the world through trial and error, and therefore the different architectural styles, and based on local conditions. Vernacular architecture in all parts of the world is rich with ancient techniques and indigenous peoples at the beginning used to protect themselves from different weather conditions. Population survived this early in themselves by sheltering in a traditional building that has been tried throughout the ages. In the vernacular architecture, the solution is not only the climate problem, but also considered aesthetics, and function of the physical and social housing which is why design is so different in all parts of Africa. Generation to generation, provided a comfortable life housing conditions as a result of the great architect. Examples can be drawn from Africa cross sections are very good that comes from the northern part of Africa, Libya to the southern part of Afric a, and South Africa. Design has been selected or the housing structure at the beginning or settlements that things like the climate and the environment, culture, and materials. Their homes and seem to live in harmony with their environment, in other words they are sustainable. Architect responsible for building modern, and can be regarded as the person responsible for the use of the construction industry of energy available is very rare. Architects more and more and be conscious of the problem, and make progress in the design concept green and sustainable. Which has a substantial interest in architecture and community development programs in areas of vernacular architecture. This has been reinstated as the need for architectural design that works well with the climate and environment, not against, and with it the need to create more sustainable buildings. This awareness means that the new design and any renewal must be maintained. Vernacular architecture produced in the past built environment and the demands of those who responded to the destruction of the environment. This paper discusses the concept of how we can use the principles of vernacular architecture to create sustainability in building design vernacular search in Africa. 9.0 The presence of local architecture in northern Nigeria Rooted in the vernacular architecture of the city in the United States since the century old city on 15. The most remarkable that the Hausa city company also organizes a row. Architecture, especially in the mud, and fortified with oil palm. Artisan system development structure using the structure of clay to the limit, also developed the practice of using abstract art decoration. Various construction materials, which reflects the location and status, and all kinds of modern materials including concrete, stone, glass, marble, granite and other steel products are usually available. For people in traditional areas and rural areas, and the poor, the most common materials used in construction are of clay or mud. And building construction in the form of mud dry mass of the sun, and wattle and daub, or using the building blocks are called private tubali armed with palm fronds. 9.1 Architecture and the local model According to the harmony (2000) in various forms of architectural structure is a complex phenomenon and no explanation, it is not enough. All explanations are possible, however, the differences in people, a subject with a very different attitude, and ambition to respond to a variety of natural environments, as it deems appropriate. In the context of vernacular architecture, this answer varies from one place to another due to changes and differences in the interaction between social factors and culture, ritual, and economic and physical. This may be the factors and responses to change, but gradually even in the same place over time, but the lack of rapid social and cultural change. People who live in cold climate warming wood burning themselves or dispose of the membership. Can be used and those who live in hot climates, moist air currents and to minimize the effects of moisture. Children who live in areas with hot climate, dry house with a high thermal mass due to the large difference in temperature between day and night, and humidity is very low. What they have in common, and they all have chosen the correct form, using local building materials, and they are to overcome the negative effects of weather conditions. Buildings must be protected from bad weather, for example in areas with high precipitation, and brick clay, must restore almost every year with a few thin clay plaster, to protect and preserve the brick. Culture also has a significant impact on the emergence of vernacular buildings. North often adorn the building, according to local customs and beliefs, as shown in Figure 2. With the way that the use of the sanctuary, is a substantial effect on the form of construction. Family size, which shared space, and how they provide food and nutrition, and how people interact and many other cultural considerations will affect the area and size of housing. Furnishings are in accordance with their customs and beliefs of others to express their faith by the decoration and others are not. North of the influence of Islamic architecture and Egypt. 10.0 of local architecture and environment Slang is not sustainable, and will not reduce local resource if done correctly. If it is not sustainable, and they are not suitable for the local context, and can not be colloquial. Oliver, in housing (2003), and claims that vernacular architecture affected by different aspects of human behavior and the environment, leading to different forms of construction of almost every different context; neighboring village even though it might have a different approach to build and use of their home, although they may initially appear the same. Despite these differences, every building is subject to the same laws of physics, which shows that vernacular architecture is not lost, and Frank Lloyd Wright showed in the definition vernacular architecture, and with the great similarities in the structure. Vernacular can be seen everywhere in the world in different forms as affected by the people, culture, climate and materials. Local environment and construction materials can be prepared, administered by a lot of vernacular architecture. Since northern Nigeria has two types of climate, the Mediterranean and desert climate, and architecture cost near-different from the rural areas. Architectural materials, for example, identifying and using mostly clay, wood, stone grass in parts of northern Nigeria in the mud while the interior. A mud brick wall of dried mud bricks and then plastered. Usually filled with mud roof reinforced with wood or palm and then plastered with clay because heat (p2101 Oliver 1997). In northern Nigeria because of the mud, and existing and local sources, this is because this is the same building materials. Vernacular architecture reflects the use of local materials and get the tools and skills to make them. Whether nomadic or settled, such as residential or economic development will remain largely dependent on climate, soil, plants, seasons and other natural resources and phenomena. In areas rich in trees and wooden vernacular, while the area is not much wood could use mud or stone. It is believed that traditional materials and techniques for a while, substandard, or second class, while modern materials and civilized, or a symbol of wealth. Paul Oliver in (built to meet the needs of) show that vernacular architecture suffer from apathy and ignorance of history or social value, are assigned a low status housing, and so few people have seen their home natural low status. Find show that people will build what they believe, and turn them back in the native language, and look more modern architecture and superior. Any change in perception has the potential to revive interest in vernacular architecture. This perception may be due to missionaries and colonial, built in a style that reflects the wealth and power. Local population and became convinced that the availability and cost of imported materials is a symbol of wealth, and that the vernacular style of the original materials are under the required level. So far, vernacular materials last longer if used properly. May be appropriate for the work of hay will last up to 25 years, and walls built of mud bricks can be up to 70 years or more. Need to focus on Africa of the vernacular style, with modern materials used in the campaign when you need to get as much or more stable structure. There is a need to seek to understand the different soil conditions, and comes with pregnancy accounts for pole structures, mud bricks. Like many African countries struggling to solve housing problems, vernacular architecture can be an answer for building materials and proved to be expensive. 11.0 Sustainability and local architecture According Mbina (2006), and development as a human activity is a deliberate attempt by man to improve his living conditions through the use of innovative resources and smart, either the transformation of human, material and financial backwardness of the society from the state a more prosperous good life. If this is true, and can be sustainable architecture Africa? The answer is positive, but it occurs, must be about four major issues are adequately addressed because they seem to create trouble for the development as follows: 11.1 Technology and Building Materials African housing technologies and techniques are very low and so far back behind their foreign counterparts. This technology to be viable and acceptable, there must be improvement in the context of technological progress 21. History has shown the importance and effectiveness of local building materials such as stone and mud / earth, and organic products (Jolaoso 2006). This has been used in construction work in the early centuries in places like Egypt and South Africa. Have been served at a reasonable cost relative. Thus, this provides a convenient platform for further research that can be taken into account as they related to the form of vernacular architecture, shape, size, and style. 11.2 African attitudes towards the local architecture There seems to be a relatively low position, much of Africa towards the acceptance of vernacular architecture. In fact, there is a screen aesthetic of African architecture and some African and foreign audiences. It is argued here that, whatever disadvantages may be felt in this context, can be turned to advantage if a complete perspective of the environment and to create a full intellectualisation not to be known only on the screen, but can be systematically ignored. One reason that some African intellectuals is not like that vernacular architecture is the slang and not harmful to the Amour propre, but they have lost, in fact a culture of intimacy that allows them to see immediately the importance of many of the vernacular architecture, and to focus on the intellect, in the same time, for any reason, and not interested to develop the ability to estimate through intellectualisation (Bokannen 2000). 11.3 AIDS They are relatively cheap to develop sustainable vernacular architecture. Although the license, and developers need government assistance through long-term loans to support large utilities, and pay back over a long period of time (10-25 years), without any unnecessary trouble. 11.4 climatic conditions Climatic conditions play an important role in influencing the shape and style and form in architecture. Some vernacular builders pay little attention when building a house because of the lack of government attention qualifying standards. 12.0 Conclusion Vernacular architecture there for several centuries, has grown over the years through trial and error. Has been approved as this knowledge from generation to generation and has been tried and tested over the years. It has survived several vernacular structures of all types of extreme weather conditions. Can not be a common vernacular house built using clay has a life expectancy of more than 70 years. Now, with the use of current knowledge of the earth or mud as a building material, building age is far more than 70 years. Vernacular architecture once the pride and heritage to the races and different cultures in Africa, but as a result of imperialism be seen as lower status homes by those who are capable of modern building materials. This study shows how Africa has come in the architecture, and where he will. Emerging challenges of sustainability requires a revolution in design philosophy, strategies, techniques and methods of building construction, and then look back on vernacular architecture, to see how we can build sustainable buildings
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Power of the Symbol in The Scarlet Letter All classic literature uses symbolism in one way or another. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter is no different. The very basis of every character, their personal appearance and way they act revolves around one thing, the Scarlet Letter. The scarlet letter is an "A", in crimson fabric, worn by a Puritan woman for her act of adultery. Its very existence is solely to cause shame and remorse on Hester Prynne and her daughter Pearl, who was conceived in her lust, but it comes to stand for so much more. All of Hawthorne's main characters; Hester Prynne, Pearl, Reverend Dimmesdale, and Roger Chillingworth, feel the wrath of one piece of cloth and learn how character can be created or destroyed by the simplest things. Hester Prynne is the cause for all of a Puritan woman with more than her weight to bear. She was sent to America by her husband, Roger Chillingworth, where she committed adultery with her Reverend Dimmesdale and conceived a child, Pearl. In the beginning of the book, her beauty shines through the plain appearance of Puritan women. "The young woman was tall, with a figure of perfect elegance on a large scale. She had dark and abundant hair, so glossy that it threw off the sunshine with a gleam, and a face which, besides being beautiful from regularity of feature and richness of complexion, had the impressiveness belonging to a marked brown and deep black eyes. She was lady like, too, after the manner of the feminine gentility of those days; characterized by a certain state and dignity, rather than which is now recognized as this indication."(55). But, with her sin, comes the dreaded Scarlet A. The letter, which she so beautifully embroidered, se... ...aders with knowledge and a lifelong lesson. The Scarlet Letter teaches everyone to be able to see the sin and actual insides of someone's soul. After uncovering their deep, dark secrets, one is taught not to judge or persecute the person because of what their heart contains, for their heart may be cleaner than one's own. Works Cited and Consulted: Bradley, Sculley, Beatty, Richmond Croom, and E. Hudson Long (1996). "The Social Criticism of a Public Man." Readings on Nathaniel Hawthorne (pp. 47-49). San Diego: Greenhaven. Chase, Richard (1996). "The Ambiguity of the Scarlet Letter." Readings on Nathaniel Hawthorne (pp. 145-152). San Diego: Greenhaven.Ã Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: St. Martins, 1991.Ã Scharnhorst, Gary. The Critical Response to Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. New York: Greenwood, 1992.